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Cannabis is indigenous to Europe and cultivation began during the Copper or Bronze age: a probabilistic synthesis of fossil pollen studies

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Conventional wisdom states Cannabis sativa originated in Asia and its dispersal to Europe depended upon human transport. Various Neolithic or Bronze age groups have been named as pioneer cultivators. These theses were tested by examining fossil pollen studies (FPSs), obtained from the European Pollen Database. Many FPSs report Cannabis or Humulus (C/H) with collective names (e.g. Cannabis/Humulus or Cannabaceae). To dissect these aggregate data, we used ecological proxies to differentiate C/Hpollen, as follows: unknown C/H pollen that appeared in a pollen assemblage suggestive of steppe (Poaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae) we interpreted as wild-type Cannabis. C/H pollen in a mesophytic forest assemblage (Alnus, Salix, Populus) we interpreted as Humulus. C/H pollen curves that upsurged and appeared de novo alongside crop pollen grains we interpreted as cultivated hemp. FPSs were mapped and compared to the territories of archaeological cultures. We analysed 479 FPSs from the Holocene/Late Glacial, plus 36 FPSs from older strata. The results showed C/Hpollen consistent with wild-type C. sativain steppe and dry tundra landscapes throughout Europe during the early Holocene, Late Glacial, and previous glaciations. During the warm and wet Holocene Climactic Optimum, forests replaced steppe, and Humulus dominated. Cannabis retreated to steppe refugia. C/Hpollen consistent with cultivated hemp first appeared in the Pontic-Caspian steppe refugium. GIS mapping linked cultivation with the Copper age Varna/Gumelniţa culture, and the Bronze age Yamnaya and Terramara cultures. An Iron age steppe culture, the Scythians, likely introduced hemp cultivation to Celtic and Proto-Slavic cultures.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00334-018-0678-7

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https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs00334-018-0678-7.pdf

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Posted (edited)

Toen we begonnen te domesticatie van voedsel gewassen,domesticeerde we deze plant dus ook gewoon.

Samen met graan en hop voor bier en brood.

 

Veel mensen denken dat wiet iets is van deze tijd,maar het is dus wel integraal verweven met ons bestaan zoals ik altijd al vermoedde.

Het is juist iets van de laatste tijd om het te verbieden vanuit onbegrip/onwetendheid.

Dat is dus eigenlijk de gebruiken en tradities van onze gemeenschappelijke voorouders verloochenen,en een belangrijk deel van onze geschiedenis ontkennen.

 

Alleen omdat 1 persoon de wet wilde veranderen zonder acht te slaan op de waarheid,en de wereld naar zijn hand wilde zetten.

Alleen maar door onwetendheid&angst voor een plant waarmee we al hand in hand lopen sinds begin der tijden.

 

Dit was puur gebaseerd op mening en onrealistische angst,niks feiten.

In mijn boekje is iemand die handelt voordat de feitelijke waarheid bekend is,best wel achterlijk:withstupid:.

 

 

Dit was wel een vermakelijk verhaaltje Konopi...

 

 

 

 

 

Edited by Collie Weed

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Posted (edited)

vrij vertaalde quote uit "the big book of buds"
er is aanduidingen dat de cannabis plant, al honderden en mogelijk duizenden jaren gebruikt wordt in Nederland.
de vroegere bewoners die zich in de polder gebieden vestigden hadden toegang tot hemp voor voedsel, brandstof en vezels...

rond begin 16de eeuw begonnen arme nederlandse boeren hun dure geïmporteerde tabak te versnijden met hennep

(hier komt waarschijnlijk ons ingebakken gebruik van tabak bij onze lekkere wietjes te kieperen)

schilderijtje uit 1660 Nederlandse boeren die hoogst waarschijnlijk met hemp aangelengde tabak roken in een "rook huisje"

57.JPG

 

wat ik dus wil zeggen, het was er altijd al en zal er altijd blijven :verrygood

prohibition is not the solution!!

Edited by alkaline
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Posted (edited)

lol. Wel duidelijk dat de man met het 'zwarte' mutsje iets anders erin heeft dan alleen maar tabak en het hondje heeft ook een 'couch look'.:lol:

Edited by greentjeonatrip
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Posted (edited)

dat waren stoners in die tijden wat dat betrefd is er niet veel veranderd 

 

de ene draaid heneptouw de ander rookt het 

0d834ab4-d6f4-11e4-9d91-62d459e42dda.jpg

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Adriaen_Brouwer_-_Inn_with_drunken_peasants.jpg

cbd07ec3621adc413204fadf56e764c6.jpg

 

Zoals_de_Ouden-_zongen.jpg

hier die gast met die dikke bong ook !!

Adriaen_van_Ostade_036.jpg

cbd07ec3621adc413204fadf56e764c6.jpg

Edited by macerror
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kinderen ook een hijs :rofl

 

Quote

 

The most well publicized, as well as the most controversial, Cannabis seed remains (Figure 2) were recovered from the frozen tomb of Iron Age (ca. 2430 BP) nobles of eastern Siberia discovered by Sergei Rudenko in 1929 (Rudenko 1970). We have included Rudenko’s account of the occurrence of Cannabis seeds in the tomb, even though much of it is highly conjectural.

        "Thus in barrow 2, two smoking sets were found: vessels containing stones that had been in the fire and hemp seeds; above them were shelters supported on six rods, in one case covered with a leather hanging and in the other case probably with a felt hanging, large pieces of which were found in the southwest corner of the tomb. Finally, there was a [leather] flask containing hemp seeds [Figure 2] fixed to one of the legs of a hexapod stand. Consequently we have the full set of articles for carrying out the purification ritual, about which Herodotus wrote in such detail in his description of the Black Sea Scyths. There had been sets for smoking hemp in all the Pazyryk barrows; the sticks for the stand survived in each barrow although the censers and cloth covers had all been stolen except in barrow 2. Hemp smoking was practiced evidently not only for purification, but in ordinary life by both men and women.

        "In each vessel besides the stones, as already mentioned above, there was a small quantity of seeds of hemp (Cannabis sativa L. of the variety C. ruderalis Janisch.). Burning hot stones had been placed in the censer and part of the hemp seeds had been charred. Furthermore the handle of the cauldron censer had been bound round with birch bark, evidently because the heat of the stones was such that its handle had become too hot to hold in the bare hands."

 

 

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